BIS Working Paper: Macro-financial stability frameworks: experience and challenges

Claudio Borio, Ilhyock Shim, and Hyun Song Shin

December 2022


Since the 2008–9 Great Financial Crisis, major advanced economies (AEs) have used monetary and macroprudential policies to achieve macroeconomic and financial stability. Emerging market economies (EMEs) have, in addition, combined interest rate tools with FX intervention, macroprudential policy and, sometimes, capital flow management measures (CFMs) to address the challenges from capital flow and
exchange rate volatility. This paper provides an overview of the use of monetary, macroprudential and exchange rate policies, sometimes alongside CFMs, both in AEs and EMEs. It also assesses the extent to which the use of these policies constitutes a holistic macro-financial stability framework (MFSF). We reach three conclusions. First, combining tools has succeeded in improving policy trade-offs, notably by mitigating the risks to domestic stability arising from external influences. Second, a holistic MFSF is still a work in progress. Finally, more efforts need to be made to better understand the channels of international spillovers and spillbacks.

Macro-financial stability frameworks: experience and challenges