March 5, 2018


In the last decades the internationalization of banks has increased. However, internationally active banks can be a source of systemic risk. The appearance of the financial crisis revealed the need to better understand determinants and consequences of the internationalization of banks. Thus, this section is intended to give a general overview of different databases that can be used for further research on this topic. The databases are divided into several sub-groups that refer to different research questions. The IMF offers free access to its online economic data including the International Financial Statistics (IFS) and the Balance of Payments Statistics (BOP/IIP).

Financial Markets Directives Database

In Europe, financial markets have undergone significant regulatory changes since the last financial and sovereign debt crisis. One key element is the harmonization of rules for capital regulation, bank resolution and deposit insurance. In the euro area, the sizable change in the regulatory framework is also reflected by the establishment of the banking union and the ongoing work towards completion of the capital markets union…

Some Applications:
  • How does bank risk-taking adjust to the new regulatory framework in the European Union?
  • What are the implications for financial market structure?

Cross-border banking

This type of data consists mainly of reports that are directly related to banks´ international operations. Data sources which are often used in the literature are the BIS statistics on international banking or data on foreign ownership by Claessens and Van Horen (2014)… [more]

Some Applications:
  • To what extent are banks globalized?
  • How are shocks transmitted internationally?

Banks’ balance sheets

Bank balance sheets and income statements are able to describe the operational structure of a bank. In some cases balance sheets also report information regarding banks´ foreign operations, making these data suitable to explore banks’ international linkages… [more]

Some Applications:
  • What is the relationship between banks´ operational structures and internationalization processes?
  • Does the resilience to global shocks depend on banks’ balance sheet strength?

Systemic risk indicators and financial crises

Interbank linkages at the national and the international level can represent a source of systemic risk and impose a threat to international financial stability… [more]

Some Applications:
  • What is the role of banks´ international linkages in building up systemic risk?
  • How do international capital flows respond to financial crises?

Banking supervision and regulation

The recent financial crisis has led researchers and policy makers to rethink the role of banking supervision and regulation in a context of highly interconnected and globally active banks… [more]

Some Applications:
  • Do financial crises lead to structural changes in banking regulation?
  • Are cross-country differences in banking regulation a source of regulatory arbitrage?

Financial indices

Research on international banking does not only contribute to the understanding of the transmission of financial shocks. It also seeks to understand how different social and cultural features, as well as market structures affect the internationalization of banks… [more]

Some Applications:
  • Does financial inclusion in a given country attract foreign banks?
  • Is financial literacy affecting information asymmetries in banking systems?

Covid-19 Data

The Covid-19 pandemic has triggered a world-wide economic and health crisis quite unlike any crunch experienced in recent years. In an attempt to map the consequences of this turmoil… [more]

Some applications:
  • How did stock markets react to the crisis and subsequent central bank and national government interventions?
  • How did the different lock-down measures across countries affect economic activity?

Climate Finance

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in awareness about the hazards posed by climate change. As a result, research efforts have intensified with a particular emphasis on investigating the economic implications of climate change… [more]

Some Applications:
  • How do natural disasters affect regional credit supply?
  • Do banks adjust lending based on ESG ratings?
  • Does climate change endanger financial stability?