April 9, 2018

Financial Indices

Research on international banking does not only contribute to the understanding of the transmission of financial shocks. It also seeks to understand how different social and cultural features, as well as market structures affect the internationalization of banks. Several research initiatives provide cross-country data that help understand how different social indicators related to financial markets can affect, for example, operational structures and business models of globalized banks.
Links to data sources

Sectoral Credit Around the World, 1940-2014

A novel sectorally disaggregated dataset on credit to the private sector for 108 countries for 1940-2014. Over the last 70 years, household credit has increased considerably both in advanced and emerging economies, while manufacturing credit has declined. Data on: NFC: ISIC sectors (mean > 20)
Households: Mortgages, consumer credit, credit cards, car loans, Total mortgage credit, Non-bank financial institutions
Data Provider: Karsten Müller
Level/Frequency: Country-Level/Monthly/Quarterly/Yearly
Geographic Coverage: 108 economies
Time Range: 1940-2014
Availability: Contact Author


Includes nominal and real effective exchange rates as well as equlibrium real effective exchange rates. A second sub-database provides data about behavioral equilibrium exchange rate (BEER) estimates
Data Provider: CEPII
Level/Frequency: semi-annual
Geographic Coverage: 187 economies
Time Range: 1973-2016
Availability: Free access online

Jordà-Schularick-Taylor Macrohistory Database

Data on: GDP, trade, fiscal balance, monetary base, prices, interest rates, credit, asset prices, crisis dates.
Data Provider: Òscar Jordà, Moritz Schularick, Alan M. Taylor
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data / Yearly
Geographic Coverage: 17 advanced economies
Time Range: 1870 – 2016 (varies by item)
Availability: Free access online
Where has it been used? Macrofinancial History and the New Business Cycle Facts. Òscar Jordà, Moritz Schularick, Alan M. Taylor. NBER Working Paper No. 22743

CFS Index (Center for Financial Studies)

Is a survey panel that provides data on the whole German financial sector starting at the end of 2007. Includes institutions and enterprises of the financial industry (financial institutions as e.g. banks or insurance companies) as well as selected companies that benefit from the financial sector (service providers as e.g. advisory companies or supervisory bodies). Moreover, it includes aggregated data on expectations of leading executives. The CFS index is intended to become an early indicator that should provide information on the economic development of the German financial sector.
Data Provider: Center for Financial Studies
Level/Frequency: German financial sector/ Quarterly
Geographic Coverage: Germany
Time Range: since 2007, regularly updated

Economic Globalization (KOF – ETH Zürich)

Provides country-level data on economic globalization. It contains information about actual flows (including e.g. foreign direct investment, stocks and portfolio investments) as well as about restrictions (including e.g. capital account restrictions). Is available for the period 1970 – 2010 and includes data for 207 countries on a yearly basis.
Data Provider: KOF – ETH Zürich
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data / Yearly
Geographic Coverage: World
Time Range: since 1970, regularly updated
Availability: Free access online
Where has it been used? Dreher, A. (2006). Does Globalization Affect Growth? Evidence from a new Index of Globalization. Applied Economics 38(10): 1091-1110.

Financial Access Survey (IMF)

Is a supply side indicator for financial inclusion. Provides internationally comparable indicators of access and usage. Includes data for 189 countries for the period 2004 -2012.
Data Provider: IMF
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data / Yearly
Geographic Coverage: World
Time Range: since 2004, regularly updated
Availability: Free access online

Financial Fragility Database

An international database which includes banking types exceeding commercial banks only. It can be used by both, researchers and policy makers as a basis to identify fragile or vulnerable financial systems.
Data Provider: ESRC/DFID Growth Research Programme Project, Bankscope
Level/Frequency: Bank-level and Country-Level Data / Yearly as reported
Geographic Coverage: Participating Banks
Time Range: 1998-2012
Availability: Contact Author
Where has it been used? Fielding, D., and J. Rewilak (2015).Credit Booms, Financial Fragility and Banking Crises. Economics Letters (forthcoming).

Financial Inclusion (Worldbank)

Is a demand side indicator. Data is based on a survey about saving, borrowing, making payments and managing risk. It provides country-level data for 148 economies and more than 150000 adults, also including rural, poor and women. Data for 2011 is available in the internet after registering. Updated data will be collected in 2014 and 2017.
Data Provider: World Bank
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data
Geographic Coverage: World
Time Range: 2011, 2014*, 2017*
Availability: Access online after registering
Where has it been used? Demirgüç-Kunt, A., and L. Klapper (2012). Measuring Financial Inclusion: The Global Findex. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper WPS 6025.

Financial Innovation (OECD ANBERD)

Database provides annual country-level data on R&D expenditures including financial and insurance activities. Includes data for OECD countries and is available in national currency (current and constant prices) or PPP dollars (current and constantprices).
Data Provider: OECD
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data  / Yearly
Geographic Coverage: OECD countries
Time Range: since 2000, regularly updated
Availability: Free access online

Financial Literacy: Germany (SAVE)

Is a panel on German households and focuses on savings and old-age provision. Provides detailed information on the financial situation of German households, on socio-economic characteristics and on psychological characteristics. One of the most important targets is to capture the dynamic variation of the savings behavior. The data is on an annual basis, but it is only available for German households.
Data Provider: Max-Planck Institute  for social law and social policy
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data / Yearly
Geographic Coverage: Germany
Time Range: 2001 – 2011/12
Availability: Can be ordered for scientific research upon a small fee
Where has it been used? Coppola, M., and B. Lamla (2013). Saving and Old-Age Provision in Germany (SAVE): Design and Enhancements. Schmollers Jahrbuch, 133(1), 109-16.

Financial Literacy: Netherlands (CentERdata, Tilburg University)

Study uses data from the Netherland’s Bank Household Survey (DHS), which contains information about economic characters and saving data. Moreover they used data that they collected in a survey about financial literacy. This survey consists of two modules to measure data about basic financial literacy and advanced financial knowledge. Information is just available for the Netherlands and there does not exist a single database that contains all information on this.
Data Provider: CentERdata, TilburgUniversity; van Rooij, Lusardi and Alessie (2011)
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data
Geographic Coverage: The Netherlands
Time Range: n.a.
Availability: Can be ordered for scientific research after submitting a credential statement
Where has it been used? Van Rooij, M., A. Lusardi, and R. Alessie (2011). Financial literacy and stock market participation. Journal of Financial Economics 101(2): 449–472.

Financial Openness (Chinn and Ito)

Is a de jure measure for financial openness, which provides country-level data for 182 countries. Focuses on a country’s degree and regulatory aspects of capital account openness.  It is available for the period 1970 – 2011. It is on a yearly basis and allows to monitor the development over time.
Data Provider: Chinn and Ito
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data / Yearly
Geographic Coverage: World
Time Range: 1970-2016
Availability: Free access online
Where has it been used? Chinn, M. D., and H. Ito (2008). A New Measure of Financial Openness. Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis 10(3): 309 – 322.

Financial Soundness Indicators (FSI)

Provides country-level data on macroprudential analysis as well as strengths and vulnerabilities of financial systems which is steadily extended with new reporting countries. The Countries are able to use different methodologies for reported data.
Data Provider: IMF
Level/Frequency: Country-Level Data / Quarterly
Geographic Coverage: Participating Countries
Time Range: since 2000, regularly updated
Availability: Free access online
Where has it been used? Xingyuan Che, N., and Y. Shinagawa (2014). Financial Soundness Indicators and the Characteristics of Financial Cycles. IMF Working Paper No. 14/14.

Global Liquidity Indicators

The term global liquidity is used by the BIS to mean the ease of financing in global financial markets. Credit is among the key indicators of global liquidity and the focus of the global liquidity indicators estimated by the BIS. These indicators constitute part of the BIS’s support for the G20’s activities.
Data Provider: Bank for International Settlement
Frequency: Quarterly
Geographic Coverage: Advanced Economies and Emerging market economies
Time Range: since 2000, regularly updated
Availability: Free access online

Macro-Financial Data Set

Contains information on real GDP, credit, consumer prices, stock prices and sovereign bond yields for 48 countries world-wide starting in 1950.
Data Provider: Eric Monnet and Damien Puy
Level/Frequency: Country/Quarterly
Geographic Coverage: World (cross-section)
Time Range: 1950-2019
Availability: Free access online
Where has it been used? Monnet, E., & Puy, M. D. (2019). One Ring to Rule Them All? New Evidence on World Cycles. International Monetary Fund.

OECD Public Finance Dataset

Provides detailed information on governments’ revenues and expenditures and breaks those down by categories. The dataset compiles information from different sources, including e.g. the OECD Annual National Accounts and OECD Economic Outlook Database. Also included are standard macroeconomic variables such as GDP and employment rate as well as institutional indicators.
Data Provider: OECD
Level/Frequency: Country/Yearly
Geographic Coverage: OECD Countries
Time Range: 1945-2019
Availability: Free access online
Where has it been used? Bloch, D., et al. (2016), “Trends in Public Finance: Insights from a New Detailed Dataset”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 1345, OECD Publishing, Paris.

TEDB “Taxes in Europe” database

Provides data on taxes currently in place in EU member states, featuring information on its legal basis, assessment base, main exemptions, applicable rate(s), economic and statistical classification, and the revenue generated by each specific tax.
Data Provider: European Commission
Level/Frequency: Country/-
Geographic Coverage: EU member states
Availability: Free access online